Beyond Tea and Bread | Getting a Healthy Kenyan Breakfast

Why is breakfast important?

Breakfast is usually the first meal of the day and as such is the most important. The word itself comes from the phrase "breaking the fast" which draws from the fact that the last eight hours or so of sleep, your body was busy digesting the previous night's dinner. Consequently, you wake with pangs of hunger and the obvious need to break that night long fast.

Being the first meal of the day, breakfast is key on how your start your day and even how it progresses. Skipping breakfast for whatever reason means you begin the day with an energy deficit that prompts your body to tap into your energy stores. As a result, you might feel dreary and not as energetic as you would've had you taken breakfast.

There's also the added consequence that when you do have your first meal, there's a likelihood you may overeat and if that means eating out, then that meal is likely not to be as nutritious as the breakfast prepared at home.

Just compare the kind of foods served at fast food joints and what you have at home. Still, skipping breakfast is less of an issue for the majority of us, rather it's what we've during breakfast that seems to be more of a bigger problem.



Whats makes up a breakfast meal?

So what's a healthy breakfast? Before we answer that question we must first of all explore the food groups that make up a breakfast.

For most of us, a beverage paired with a carbohydrate like bread seems all there is to it but it's usually more than that. We actually need all the major food groups represented and that means a meal consisting of some:
  • carbohydrate
  • protein
  • fruit
  • vegetables
  • dairy
This looks like something for dinner and not for breakfast but's let not forget we're talking about the most important meal of the day, and with such a title it's only natural that you get healthy dose of different types of nutrients.

However, since it may not be practical for everyone to include the whole five in breakfast, make sure you get at least 3 of them.

Now let's look at the particular foods that complete this menu.


1. Carbohydrate

The carbohydrate of choice is very important as it's what caters for the energy to kick start your day. There are a lot of carbs to choose from ranging from breads, starch tubers right down to breakfast cereals.

All this are certainly good choices, the only thing we've to mindful of is that its better when the carbs are wholegrain.Why? This is because whole-grains, due to their fibre content, deliver energy in a much better way compared to refined carbs.

As a result you feel fuller and energetic for longer periods as compared when you take something refined that is quickly digested and used up resulting in a much quicker feeling of hunger and thus eating more. If you're watching your weight this is something you need to take note of.

Bread

bread
Slices of Bread

Bread tends to be the obvious choice for the majority and it typically comes in three alternatives: white, brown and wholemeal. The clear choice here is to go for the wholemeal variety but if you can't find it, then go for the brown bread but make sure it's indeed brown. We've already discussed the difference between these three here should you to find out more.

Likewise for chapatis (flat Indian bread) you can use whole wheat flour instead of refined white flour.



Breakfast Cereal

For breakfast cereals go for whole-grain cereals. To do this read the labels and make sure the whole grain is part of the ingredient list. It should also have more than 5g or more of fibre per serving. Make sure also to check the sugar and sodium content are minimal (less than 5g of sugar & less than 300mg of sodium per serving).

In addition to providing energy, whole grains also provide substantial amounts of vitamins and minerals such as B vitamins, iron, magnesium, copper, zinc and manganese.

Starchy Tubers

sweet potatoes

Whole grains can also be swapped with starchy tubers which while traditional, are not only natural and nutritious, but tend to be more affordable. They include the likes of sweet potatoes and arrowroots (nduma) which in addition to being good sources of energy happen to be also rich in vitamins.

Sweet potatoes also release their energy (sugar) much slowly compared to other starches and therefore are good for those controlling their blood sugar levels such as people with type 2 diabetes. Sweet potatoes are also excellent sources of Vitamin A and C.


2. Protein

eggs
Eggs

Whole grains and other plant foods do provide protein but in modest quantities. To supplement the protein from this other foods you can take eggs, yoghurt and nuts/seeds.

If you're going to take eggs, limit them to one per day since their high in protein and their yolks are also cholesterol rich. This cholesterol is not bad, you just have to watch the quantity you're taking.

Nuts and seeds can be added to your breakfast cereal or porridge if you'd rather not take them alone.  You can also spread peanut butter on your bread .

Regarding processed meats like sausages (and “smokies”), bacon and ham, it's best to avoid or keep them at a bare minimum as they're high in sodium which is a risk factor for hypertension. There are also associated with an increased risk of heart disease, type 2 diabetes and colorectal cancer.1,2


3. Dairy

milk
Glass of Milk

Milk is essential especially for kids that are growing. The milk can be added to breakfast cereal or just drank plain. If you're going to use milk, consider choosing fat-free, low fat or skimmed milk which are much lower in fat content.

Instead of milk, you can also use yoghurt. If you're watching your weight choose fat-free or low fat yoghurt. Diabetics can also use plain yoghurt instead of the regular yoghurt.



4. Fruits and Vegetables

fruits
Fruits and Juices

The best way to get some vitamins in your breakfast is by adding some fruits or vegetables. You could've a whole fruit as it is or you can instead make a smoothie or fruit juice (no added sugar).

Note however that a fruit juice may deny you of some fibre so sometimes it's better to have the whole fruit instead. Example of fruits you can include in your breakfast are oranges, bananas, pineapples, melons, berries etc.


What about tea or coffee?

You can have tea or coffee for breakfast however be watchful of its caffeine content. Too much caffeine is not good for your health. Drinking them in moderation and weak is therefore recommended.

To reduce their calories consider not adding sweeteners and creamers. If used, sugar should be used modestly. If you like your tea with some milk you can consider using fat-free, low fat or skimmed milk.

With that said, porridege, milk/yoghurt, natural fruit juices, smoothies or even water can all be used as alternatives to tea and coffee during breakfast.

SHOW/HIDE REFERENCES
1. Study - Processed meat and colorectal cancer: a review of epidemiologic and experimental evidence (Available here)
2. Harvard Health - Eating processed meats, but not unprocessed red meats, may raise risk of heart disease and diabetes
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